nephrite : List Of Minerals : The Stone Network
The Business To Business Portal For The Natural Stone Trade

Premium Black Galaxy Granite Slabs
Direct From The Factory
Ex-India

Mobile

Directory

Stone Fairs

Exhibitions 2017 Country
Exhibitions 2017 By Date

Stone Images

Granite
Limestone
Marble
Onyx
Quartzite
Sandstone
Slate
Travertine

Stone Machines

New Stone Machines
Used Stone Machines

Stone Sites

Stone Forums
Stone Magazines
Stone Portals

Stone Standards

CE Marking

Stone Supplies & Fabricators

Australia
Canada
United Kingdom
U.S.A.

Stone Testing

ASTM
BRE
Sandberg
Stats
Stone Initiatives
UKAS

Petrology

Granite
Limestone
Marble
Quartzite
Sandstone
Slate
Travertine

Rocks

Igneous
List of Minerals
List of Rocks
Metamorphic
Minerals
Sedimentary

Various Resources

A To Z Stone Names
Anti Slip
BIDA
Building Conservation
Building Design
English Heritage
Maintenance Products
Natural Stone Database
RIBA
RICS
Salvo
SPAB
Stone Federation GB
Trade Terminology

Nephrite is a variety of the calcium and magnesium rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). The chemical formula for nephrite is Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2. It is one of two different mineral species called jade. The other mineral species known as jade is Jadeite, which is a variety of pyroxene. Nephrite jade is an ornamental stone, used in carvings, beads, or cabochon cut gemstones.

The name nephrite is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada.

Nephrite can be found in a translucent white to very light yellow form which is known in China as mutton fat jade, in a opaque white to very light brown or gray which is known as chicken bone jade, as well as in a variety of green colours. Canada is the principal source of modern lapidary nephrite. Nephrite jade was used mostly in pre-1800 China as well as in New Zealand, the Pacific Coast and Atlantic Coasts of North America, Neolithic Europe, and southeast Asia.

  • History
  • Prehistoric and Historic China

    During Neolithic times, the key known sources of nephrite jade in China for utilitarian and ceremonial jade items were the now depleted deposits in the Ningshao area in the Yangtze River Delta (Liangzhu culture 34002250 BC) and in an area of the Liaoning province in Inner Mongolia (Hongshan culture 47002200 BC). Jade was used to create many utilitarian and ceremonial objects, ranging from indoor decorative items to jade burial suits. Jade was considered the "imperial gem". From about the earliest Chinese dynasties until present, the jade deposits in most use were from the region of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang. There, white and greenish nephrite jade is found in small quarries and as pebbles and boulders in the rivers flowing from the Kuen-Lun mountain range northward into the Takla-Makan desert area. River jade collection was concentrated in the Yarkand, the White Jade River|White Jade (Yurungkash) and Black Jade (Karakash) Rivers. From the Kingdom of Khotan, on the southern leg of the Silk Road, yearly tribute payments consisting of the most precious white jade were made to the Chinese Imperial court and there transformed into objets d'art by skilled artisans as jade was considered more valuable than gold or silver.

  • Maori
  • Nephrite jade in New Zealand is known as pounamu in the Maori language, and is highly valued, playing an important role in Maori culture. It is considered a taonga, or treasure, and therefore protected under the Treaty of Waitangi, and the exploitation of it is restricted and closely monitored. The South Island of New Zealand is Te Wai Pounamu in Maori - "The [land of] Greenstone Water" - because that is where it was found.

    Weapons and ornaments were made of it; in particular the 'mere' (short club), and the Hei-tiki (neck pendant). These were believed to have their own mana, handed down as valuable heirlooms, and often given as gifts to seal important agreements. With no metal tools, it was also used for a range of tools such as adzes.

    In New Zealand English the normal term is "greenstone" and jewellery of it in Maori designs is widely popular with locals of all races, and with tourists - although much of the jade itself is now imported from British Columbia and elsewhere.

  • Other names
  • Besides the terms already mentioned, nephrite has the following synonyms and varieties: aotea, axe-stone, B.C. jade, beilstein,, kidney stone, lapis nephriticus, nephrit, nephrita, New Zealand greenstone, New Zealand jade, spinach jade (dark grayish green), and talcum nephriticus. Tomb jade or grave jade are names given to ancient burial nephrite pieces that have a brown or chalky white texture as a surface treatment.

    Trade Supplies
    Information
    Information
  • Absolute Black Granite : Black Galaxy, Star Galaxy, Nero Impala etc. Black is popular, black looks great, black is more expensive >>>
  • Black Galaxy Granite : Quarrying & Quality Information >>>
  • M.I.A. Information
    Copyright :
    Legal Information
    This web site is protected under International Law by the
    Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998.

    If you wish to link to this site please feel free to do so HOWEVER blatant design copying, code copying and theft of bandwidth will result in legal action!

    Digg Logo ImageDigg Facebook Logo ImageFacebook Reddit Logo ImageReddit StumbleUpon Logo ImageStumbleUpon Twitter Logo ImageTwitter

    Home : Contact : About : Legal : Privacy : Cookies : Copyright 1998-2017 : The Stone Network